Two topics are discussed in a post by Steve57, a commenter at Patterico. One is the question of homosexuality in other species. And then the real interesting other topic comprises two comprehensive studies to find out if homosexuality was universal. And guess the answer?
Many cultures have never had people with such deformed psychologies. Everyone is heterosexual. Told ya.
Animals can’t be homosexual. Not as a permanent orientation. They can engage in homosexual behaviors. For instance male ducks will (and it’s not consensual, if ducks can consent; it occurs at the end of what’s called a “rape flight”). But those same ducks will mate with females when they’re available. Which also usually involves what we would call rape, unless it involves a permanently mated pair.
In fact, most examples the gay rights crowd try to cite of homosexuality in animals, aren’t. For instance those two famous male penguins who were raising a chick together? That’s just pure parenting instinct. It wasn’t like they were trying to mate with each other. They were feeding a chick.
The fact is that the idea of “Homosexuality” as a gender orientation, once gay always gay, never existed before it was recently invented as a political movement. It’s not natural in the sense that just like with the animals you cite, Gil, human sexual behavior is much more elastic than the gay mafia can allow to be said. This is why ancient cultures that recognized and accepted homoerotic behavior still never defined that behavior as marriage, Gil. Even in ancient Greece (and not all Greek city states swung that way; there were 1500 of them) or certain provinces in Japan the essential element of marriage was that it be opposite sex. Never same sex.
Nobody was traumatized by being “forced” into marriage with an icky woman. Because it was inconceivable to everyone involved that there was anything remotely like a permanent condition called “gay.”
There are cultures where it just doesn’t exist.
In turning to a dedicated study of sex practices, the Hewletts formally confirmed that the campfire stories were no mere fish tales. Married Aka and Ngandu men and women consistently reported having sex multiple times in a single night. But in the process of verifying this, the Hewletts also incidentally found that homosexuality and masturbation appeared to be foreign to both groups.
…Is the strong cultural focus on sex as a reproductive tool the reason masturbation and homosexual practices seem to be virtually unknown among the Aka and Ngandu? That isn’t clear. But the Hewletts did find that their informants — whom they knew well from years of field work — “were not aware of these practices, did not have terms for them,” and, in the case of the Aka, had a hard time even understanding about what the researchers were asking when they asked about homosexual behaviors.
The Ngandu “were familiar with the concept” of homosexual behavior, “but no word existed for it and they said they did not know of any such relationships in or around the village. Men who had traveled to the capital, Bangui, said it existed in the city and was called ‘PD’ (French for par derriere or from behind).”
Given all this, the Hewletts conclude, “Homosexuality and masturbation are rare or nonexistent [in these two cultures], not because they are frowned upon or punished, but because they are not part of the cultural models of sexuality in either ethnic group.”
[slightly edited:] As an aside, if homosexuality was so prevalent among animals as some people insist, the Aka would have a word for it. Given the fact that they’re hunter-gatherers. And hunter-gatherers live by being keen observers of animal behavior.
The authors conclude:
The finding with regard to homosexuality is perhaps not that surprising. As the Hewletts note, other researchers have documented cultures where homosexuality appears not to exist. If homosexual orientation has a genetic component to it — and there is increasing evidence that it does, in many cases — then it would not be surprising that this complex human trait (one that involves non-procreative efforts) would be found in some populations but not others.
Moreoever, sexual behavior — whether homosexual, heterosexual, or any other type — is never simply genetically determined in humans. Humans are born with sexual potentials that will manifest differently in different cultural settings.
So, to sum up. Homosexuality doesn’t exist in animals as the pro-SSM crowd understands it. A permanent, immutable characteristic. Neither does it exist in humans as such. There are some populations where it doesn’t exist at all. It is in essence a learned trait. The Ngandu had to travel to the big city to discover it even exists.
Comment by Steve57 (e3957b) — 4/7/2014 @ 3:10 pm
Alessandra says: I don’t think it’s merely learned, but it’s a dysfunction that can be caused by a set of different (non-biologically determined) variables. Socialization and social conditioning and ideology certainly have a lot to do with it.
2. Homosexuality and masturbation
Another reason we conducted a study of sexual behavior was that several years ago we asked Aka men about homosexuality and masturbation and were surprised that they were not aware of these practices, did not have terms for them and how diffi cult it was to explain both sexual practices. They laughed as we tried to explain and describe the sexual activities. We thought that maybe they were shy or embarrassed individuals, but this would have been uncharacteristic of the Aka we had known so long.
All Aka and Ngandu indicated that homosexuality (gay or lesbian) was unknown or rare. The Aka, in particular, had a difficult time understanding the concept and mechanics of same sex relationships. No word existed and it was necessary to repeatedly describe the sexual act. Some mentioned that sometimes children of the same sex (two boys or two girls) imitate parental sex while playing in camp and we have observed these playful interactions.
Ngandu were familiar with the concept, but no word existed for it and they said they did not know of any such relationships in or around the village. Men who had traveled to the capital, Bangui, said it existed in the city and was called “PD” (French for par derriere or from behind).
African Study Monographs, 31(3): 107-125, October 2010
SEX AND SEARCHING FOR CHILDREN AMONG AKA
FORAGERS AND NGANDU FARMERS OF CENTRAL AFRICA
Barry S. HEWLETT
Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Vancouver
Bonnie L. HEWLETT
Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Vancouver
Broude & Greene’s (1976) cross-cultural study of sexual practices used the Standard Cross Cultural Sample (SCCS), which is considered the best representative sample of the world’s cultures, and found that homosexuality was absent or rare in 59% of cultures with data. In terms of attitudes towards homosexuality, 21% of cultures with data (42 cultures) accepted or ignored homosexuality, 12%
of cultures had no concept, 26% of cultures ridiculed or mildly disapproved, but did not punish homosexuality, and 41% of cultures strongly disapproved and punished.
The Aka and Ngandu data on homosexuality are not inconsistent with the crosscultural record.
Homosexuality does not exist in all cultures.